Centuries Ago and Very Fast, Aqueduct Press
This collection is part of Aqueduct's Conversation Pieces series (as is a reprint of Alien Bootlegger). It's already blurbed, by Pamela Sargent and none other than Samuel Delaney.
In Centuries Ago and Very Fast, Rebecca Ore reveals the gritty and often less admirable aspects of human life without flinching but also without cynicism. These earthy, lively, and compelling stories centered around a time-traveling immortal show inventiveness, combine cosmic scope with realistic detail, and will leave readers wanting more.
Witty, vivid, and very thought provoking, these interwoven narratives of the most sophisticated of primitive lusts start with a gay caveman who happens to have been around over fourteen thousand years. Finishing an afternoon tryst with a Puerto Rican drag queen at the Chelsea Hotel in New York, he and his new friend wander back to Greenwich Village to end up smack in the Stonewall Riots of late June ’69. Then we go hunting (and killing and dressing and eating and a few other things that might raise your eyebrow) a mammoth. But that’s only the beginning. (Want to learn the right way to celebrate the winter solstice?) Ore’s little book has intelligence and charm. Really, you’ve just got to read this!
Samuel R. Delany, author of Tales of Nevèrÿon
Where to Find Rebecca Ore’s Books:
Accelerated Grimace (Published in the Magazine of Science Fiction and Fantasy, February 1998)
Acid and Stoned Reindeer
A print copy of Clarkesworld issues can be obtained in chapbook form from Wyrm Publishing.
Out of Print:
It comes a time when you have to buy appliances to use in your house. However, with the millions of brands and deals out there, it becomes even harder to choose. It is important to note that appliances are manufactured by different companies. This goes to show that the prices and qualities will be very different. Which is why you have to be prepared on what you are particularly out to get. If not then you will find yourself overwhelmed and get something you don’t want.
- Work with a budget
How much do you have set aside for buying appliances? This is something you have to be very clear on. Once you have a rough idea of how much you plan on spending, then you can go ahead and look at the prices.
Remember that the appliances will be at different prices. You have to make sure you pick products that fit your budget. An appliance may be more expensive than what you can afford but that does not make it any better in performance.
It is also important to remember that some retailers have massive sales in some seasons. Having this in mind you can save up and buy the expensive appliances for way less and save your coins.
- Space required for each appliance
This connects to the size of the appliances you plan to purchase. You have to measure your spaces very well and be sure that they will have enough room. Once you bring that fridge home you need it to fit perfectly and open it without hassle. It would be such a disappointment if, after purchasing, its space isn’t enough. Also, remember to check where the appliances will be passing through. If it is a tiny door then you need to adjust your ideal size or find a way to get it to where it should be.
Before buying any appliances you need to be very clear on what you plan on using them for. This is mainly because if you are only concerned about the basic functionalities then you can go with the cheaper option. However, if you are stuck on multiple functionalities and long-lasting equipment then you need to invest more money.
You should also check if the appliances are user-friendly. In that, you should be in a position to understand how to use it, care for it and maintain with ease.
- Your lifestyle
You have to evaluate yourself and really hone in on whether you really need some of the appliances. This is mainly because it doesn’t make sense to purchase a coffee maker when you don’t take coffee. Make sure that your appliances will be of help to you and everyone you live with. Don’t just buy things that will only clutter your space and stay unused over time.
The best way to enjoy using your appliances without any exaggerated costs is by investing in the energy efficient ones. You may find yourself in a situation where after buying an appliance and using for a month the electricity bill just shoots up. This is mainly because the appliance requires a considerable amount of energy and you will not be able to optimize its benefits. Make sure to buy the appliances that assure energy saving and you will be just fine.
- Style and aesthetics
Appearances actually matter a lot. It is always nice when you find yourself in a kitchen with appliances that compliment it so well. It is important that you are able to compliment your appliances with the place they’ll be placed. This is to ensure they don’t stick out and stand out to everyone. It is, however, also important to note that when it comes to style, everyone has a choice. To each their own, so whatever you decide to go with just make sure it fits with your whole design.
- Check the warranties
You will definitely find yourself incurring unexpected costs and it is important to know what the warranties can cover. Get to know their time limit to ensure that once the appliances get faulty before the assigned time, then it can be fixed by the manufacturers.
However, if the time limit is already up then you will have to fix it with your own money. Avoid the voices that may tell you to fix the appliance yourself rather than spending money. If you are not cut out for such then you may end up destroying the appliance and either buy a new one or spend more to fix it. The best thing to do is get in touch with Dallas Texas appliance repair specialists who understand this field and can easily be of service.
These factors apply to every appliance you plan on purchasing. Be it an oven, refrigerator, dishwasher or washing machine you will have to consider them. There are however other things that should be considered for each of the appliances individually.
Since you are the one in need of the appliances, you are best suited to know the exact things you would expect. Write these expectations and as you check on the many brands, tick of what you have found and note the name of the brand. If they fit within your budget then you can easily purchase and get on to using them.
Always remember to purchase what you really need and can’t live without. This is the best way to avoid clutter. Mainly because when it comes to buying things, people become so impulsive and see the many potentials of different things. However, these are things they have never used and wouldn’t use even after purchase.
Take your time and enjoy the hunt for appliances. Once all the factors have lined up you will definitely have the best.
Content marketing is an effective source if you want to attract and retain an audience, especially for a business or a website. It involves creating and sharing data online, through blogs, images or videos that may not directly promote a brand or business but will indirectly stimulate interest in those brands products or services.
When valuable and meaningful content is distributed to catch the eye of a distinct audience, then the first step in content marketing is complete. This process will then try to retain the audience and convert them into the business’s customers.
The reason for content marketing is to generate an audience and customers. And if the content that one market is evergreen, then the efforts will probably pay off more.
What does evergreen mean?
The definition of evergreen means something that always remains fresh and popular. Basically, denoting something that doesn’t have any expiry date or is everlasting. In business, an evergreen niche is something whose appeal is not dependent on any trend, and it doesn’t have an expiration date. In an evergreen business in the web space, the conversion action and sales funnel require very little maintenance and are almost automated.
Another example for the term evergreen is an evergreen provision in contracts through which the contract renews automatically after the expiry date. After going through the above information, it is clear that evergreen involves being timeless.
What is evergreen content?
Any content that businesses write and upload may or may not prove to be valuable for the target audience. Some content becomes obsolete or old and irrelevant with time. In such cases, new content has to be created and uploaded to retain visibility online.
The best solution here is creating evergreen content. The content or articles will have to carry the same value, even if time passes and still be able to attract online traffic at the same rate or a better rate, years from now.
Examples of Evergreen Content
Content that tends to stay evergreen includes:
- Practical posts, with a topic like “How to make friends quickly?” or “How to multi-task effectively?”
- Informative or educational posts like “How to use SEO effectively?”
- Research related or statistical posts of reference – “How Millennials are affecting the workforce?”
- Posts are offering lists or resources – “The ultimate list of statistics for marketing.”
- Content or articles that answer questions – “Frequently asked questions on packaged food.”
Tips to create evergreen content
Before talking about ways through which one can create evergreen content, there are a few questions that must be thought about.
- If the subject matter has the potential to be evergreen?
- If it seeks to establish authority or answer a question?
- Does it relate to news or trends and can it be written in a way that gives it longevity?
- If the introduction and title are informative as well as descriptive for the target audience?
- Is the piece long? And if yes, then is it organized well with bullets and sub-headings?
- If the keywords are reflected in URLs, texts and tags?
- If there are internal links and linking back of articles?
- If the content talks about a specific niche or if it needs different verbiage to stand out?
Evergreen content may require a little more effort than normal content as it needs to appeal to visitors even in the future. To have an effective marketing strategy that stays effective tomorrow as well, you need SEO friendly content that is qualitative and relevant. In short, you will need content that people can come back to year after year.
That means you would require intense research to find things that talks about fundamentals, answer customer’s query and solution to the common problems, etc. Following are some tips that can help you create unique evergreen content.
Choosing a topic
The topic you choose needs to be considered carefully so that it can qualify as evergreen. If your business sells sofas and beds, then you can write about the new trends and styles, but they will not be timeless. An article like “Simple home remedies to remove stains from your couch” will be timeless because every time someone will look up for the tips to remove stains from their couch, the methods would remain the same and can be done with simple things available at home making your content useful for the reader every time they read it.
Focus on the needs of the readers. Your content becomes more valuable if you choose topics that are citable. Additionally, consider the popular articles on the subject, examine the headlines common for it, inspect the existing content on the internet and identify topics that have been poorly written about.
Conduct research to write on new evergreen content. You may be experienced in content writing, but it is not possible to know absolutely everything in your niche. A well-researched post with references and citations is considered more trustworthy than personal opinions.
Original research will make your content stand out, getting you citations and backlinks. If the research information changes, come back to your article and update the stats to stay evergreen.
For a good article, selecting the correct and appropriate visual is important. Although making that decision is not easy. Ours is a visual world, and the success of platforms like Pinterest and Instagram depicts the value of images.
For example, if you are writing a tutorial then using screenshots is very effective. You can subscribe to stock photography, a repository of open images or create your designs to create effective content.
Content in line with Brand
The content you create must be in line with the voice of your brand. This is crucial, as an evergreen content that focuses on your brand will help you in growing the business. It will help the visitors and the target audience in remembering your brand and associating your brand name with great content.
So, if your business is selling cameras, then an article about fixing mechanical toys will not be helpful. Instead, articles on travel, vacation ideas and the like will boost your visibility.
Updating the content
Once written, you may need to update the articles occasionally. Posts including statistics and studies may need change, based on future developments. If you want to stay relevant, its best to update these to continue to attract and retain the correct audiences.
Evergreen content is very effective for content marketing in the long run. The bounce rates are lower, and people remain on the site for longer. It builds authority, can be repurposed and brings long-term value to a business.
For that matter, digital marketing experts provide great help by examining the most searched keywords for a given niche and can further help you strategize content for any business.
If you are looking for a good New York-based digital marketing agency to plan out your content and SEO for getting your ranking up on the internet take a look at what Break the Web has to offer at www.breaktheweb.agency/new-york-city-seo/. The SEO agency can give you one step solution for all your marketing queries and offer 100% transparency and real-time data analysis to help you understand the scope of success for your online presence.
There are those good days when you just enjoy being on the journey to becoming a mom. The beautiful feeling you get when your little one is moving around in your belly and kicking is just amazing. However, there are those times when you wake up to some serious morning sickness especially during the first trimester. This is when you feel really bad and just can’t help but wonder why you. Well, it is all worth it because you will bring to this world a wonderful little human.
Because of this good and bad days, it is a good idea to take a day and just pamper yourself. Forget about all those worries and enjoy the day as you bond with your unborn child.
Ways to pamper yourself
How do I pamper myself you may ask well, there a few ways you can do this;
1. Take some time to relax
Run yourself a hot bath in the tub and just soak for an hour or so without worrying about anything or anyone else. Go the extra mile and use some relaxing essential oils to enhance the scent and sprinkle some of your favorite flowers in the water.
Do this while reading your current favorite book or listening to your best podcaster but do not do this while scrolling through social media. This is your time to unwind and be in your own space going through social media will only expose you to other people’s lives.
Meditating would also be a good way to relax and get composed for the following day or tasks ahead.
2. Indulge in one of your guilty pleasures
This could be anything you don’t do on a daily basis, but you would love to. It should be something you love and would lift your spirits. Binge watch your favorite shows and catch up on all the episodes you have missed because of your busy life.
Order in some of your best food and eat your day away. Have fun as you do this and be present at the moment.
3. Get outside and enjoy what nature has to offer
Plan a picnic with some of your friends or your significant other and really enjoy yourself. Play some games because this will make you bond even better and get you moving since we all know movement will be good for you. If you have any other children, this will be a great opportunity for them to expend their energy.
Being out in the sun and enjoying the fresh air is good for you and the baby. As you have fun with your family and friends be sure to laugh and enjoy your time together.
4. Go for a dinner date or have a staycation
Plan a date with your husband and dress up well for the night. Accessorize and wear your best dinner dress and feel pretty for the night. Do not let the fact that you are pregnant get in the way of you getting yourself all dolled up and looking pretty.
Allow yourself a night away from your kids and your home, get a room at a nice hotel and enjoy the service. Have fun and let go of all your day to day responsibilities and enjoy being served by someone else
5. Have a spa day
Have a massage, get some manicure and pedicure, have your body scrubbed to remove all the dead skin and dirt.
Having a prenatal massage will relieve you of any backaches, shoulder tension and reduce tiredness. Book a massage with a licensed therapist who specializes in maternal massage and can surely give you the service you deserve. This will help you relax and have a smoother time during your pregnancy.
Having your nails done and body scrubbed really well will leave you feeling pretty and make you happier. The happier you are the more your body release endorphins that help relax your body.
6. Shop, shop and shop some more
This is what a lot of women call retail therapy and is a very good way to pamper yourself. Go out and get some flattery clothes for your growing belly do not wait until you have nothing to wear.
Many women get worried by the fact the only clothes available for pregnant mothers are big buggy non-flattery clothes. Well, that has changed since many people and brands have come out with amazing clothing that will be good for your body.
This is also a perfect opportunity to get some clothes for your little one. If you are aware of your child’s gender, go ahead and buy everything he/she would need. It is always a good idea to plan ahead and prepare in advance.
7. Visit your hairdresser
Go to your hairdresser and get yourself a makeover. Search the internet for a good hairstyle that you would like to try out and do it. Wear your new hairdo and slay all the way. This will be a good thing because due to your changing hormones you find that your hair may start experiencing some breakage. Having a good hairstyle will leave you looking beautiful.
8. Get some beauty sleep
There are nights when you’ll not be in a position to sleep well because of the many aches and heartburn you may experience. So sleep more on the weekends and nap once or twice a day to compensate on the lost sleep.
Pampering yourself is a must do to help you relax and enjoy the whole pregnancy journey. Take time to do something that makes you happy, not because of someone else but for your own sake. Have fun while as you go through this beautiful journey.
A backstory is an essential part of character development. Without it, the characters in a story may seem flat or one-dimensional. To create characters that leap off the written page and into a reader’s imagination, the writer must concoct a history and background.
Sometimes the history and background are quite interesting. It’s tempting to tell the reader everything about the character. However, stopping the action of the story to do an info dump of character history brings the novel to a screeching halt, and is a perfect place for readers to set the book down. They may not ever pick it up again.
Treat Backstory Like Glass
Margie Lawson, a teacher of a unique writing method called the EDITS system, explains how backstory should be handled. She says to think of backstory as a sheet of plate glass. Once the backstory has been all worked out, it is beautiful and clear. It may be so beautiful that an author wants to devote an entire scene or perhaps an entire chapter to it.
Instead, Margie advises that the writer drop that beautiful piece of plate glass and let it split into a thousand tiny shards and slivers. Then, as the story progresses, a sliver of backstory can be slipped into a scene without slowing down the action or taking the reader’s attention away from the story. Little by little, the backstory is inserted into the novel. There is no info dump, and the story maintains its pace.
Why Backstory is Important
The backstory is the impetus for character motivation. It will help the author and the reader understand why a character acts in a certain way. It also provides the backdrop for character interactions.
If a character grew up with parents that were always running from the police, then any encounter with law enforcement will be tense. The author knows this because of creating the backstory. The reader doesn’t need to know every detail about every run-in with the police the character witnessed. It’s enough to slip in a little flashback or thought that clues the reader into why the character is afraid of the law.
Writers should complete a full and descriptive backstory for themselves to use. However, the only things that need to be revealed to the reader are the things that move the plot forward. If it doesn’t advance the plot, then it should be saved for another scene where it will work better. This is something more fully explained in the article Techniques of the Selling Writer.
Backstory provides fullness to a novel. It can apply to settings as well as people. When including backstory, avoid the dreaded info dump by slivering the details into the scenes like a sliver of glass slides into a mosaic. It’s not noticeable as it goes in, but the reader will know something is missing without it.
If you have a professional copywriting business, you know by now that competition is getting fiercer as each day goes by. Not only is it because there are far more copywriters compared to a few years ago. Aside from this reality, editors and copywriters can now advertise their services online. With the internet, it is now easy for anyone to market their products and services. So, if you are a copywriter, you know that you can’t just focus on your work but also, on marketing.
Of course, talent is crucial. You cannot just have fantastic marketing strategies and then expect clients to keep on coming back. For sure, your high quality of service must be the defining factor that should have clients go for your services for as long as they can. Gimmicks only contribute 0.1% of the entire package. More than anything, quality is the most critical factor when it comes to copywriting.
So, before you decide on publishing your services online, make sure that you perfect your craft first and foremost. Get work from small, medium, to large enterprises, and even go for volunteer work for exposure and experience. The more work you get done, the better your chances are of getting steady jobs. And the broader your network is, the better your referrals will be. Do not get into the temptation of going for the plunge without being 100% ready for all the challenges that you have to face. Remember, you will be competing with hundreds, even thousands, of copywriters out there. So, make your brand count.
Challenges in the Business
One of the challenges that many professional copywriters face is the inconsistencies with the work they receive. Unlike a full-time job where you know how much you earn in a month when you go as a copywriter that’s striving to get contracts from a white-hat SEO agency based in NYC, you don’t know how much you get in any given month. For this month, you may have a lot of jobs; on other months, you may not receive anything at all. So, you must know that this is one of the most substantial challenges you must be willing to go through this path.
You see, as a professional copywriter, you do not only focus on your copywriting. You must also be willing to learn the ropes of online marketing to find your success in this industry. But you don’t have to do everything on your own. It is, in fact, best practice for you to hire an SEO expert who can do the marketing side for you. It is because if you dabble in too many tasks, you may lose sight of what’s most important. You are a copywriter, so you must focus on this craft above anything else.
It is good to know some of the Search Engine Optimization (SEO) tips that you can use to improve your professional copywriting business online. Here are some of them of the marketing tactics you can use:
1. Invest in your portfolio
Just like architects and designers, as a copywriter, you must invest in your portfolio. You can’t expect potential clients to go for your service if they don’t see enough work to check out on. You want clients to see what they will expect from your work, so having an excellent portfolio cannot be underestimated. Write for different clients and sites, and make sure that you only publish on your site those that are not copyrighted by your clients. It is best to talk with your client first to make sure that it is okay to publish the work on your site.
Make it easy for potential clients to go through your site and to contact you when they need to ask further questions. Having a fast-loading website is not cheap, but you will see that all the investment will be worth it. The chances of potential clients exiting your site when they look at a slow-loading website are high compared to when you have a fast-loading one.
You can also ask for feedback from family, friends, and colleagues from the copywriting industry. Feedback is crucial when you are curating your portfolio, because something may look good to you, but may have a different impression on other people. Take these feedbacks constructively and do not forget to thank them for the time and effort given to look at your site.
2. Make keywords work to your advantage
Articles are next to nothing if they get published without keywords. It is because keywords provide the direct link between an article and the search engine. Without them, search engines cannot “read” your content; thus, your site cannot receive the accolades it deserves. For sure, you want your site to be high up the ranks so, do not forget to put in relevant keywords with your content.
But how do you know which keywords are best to use? For this part, research is vital. Search online on the top copywriting websites and see how they put their keywords. How do they choose them? What’s the algorithm behind the decision-making process? Make a tally and take notes, so you are well-guided when you apply the principles to your site.
Copywriters are always in demand, both in print and online publications. Carve your path and make your craft known through strategic marketing techniques that you can use for your own site.
If you have recently picked up cooking, you will quickly realize how difficult it is to prepare and cook your favorite dishes. You have to do the grocery shopping, prepping up of ingredients, prepping up of utensils, cooking, and clean-up after. All-in-all, it takes at least two hours for you to do this full cycle. If you have to do this twice or thrice a day, or if you have to cook for your family, cooking takes a big chunk of your time. And if you work full-time, there is more reason for you to want to eat takeaway or to find enough reasons not to want to cook at home.
“But cooking is easy!” You may find your mother or friend telling you this when you share that you don’t have time to cook. Some people may find it easy to judge and put the blame on you for not having time to cook; but in reality, it can be difficult especially if both parents are working full-time. For example, you want to have carbonara for dinner. If you’re going to make everything from scratch, you have to purchase pasta (assuming that you will not make this yourself), olive oil, butter, onion, bacon (optional), mushrooms, cream, and cheese. Then, once through with grocery shopping, you must prep the ingredients up, so that means, chopping, slicing, and shredding as advised by the recipe. After your prep, you then have to cook the dish according to the recipe. Then, the most-dreaded clean-up of all utensils used.
If you add in all the time that it takes for you from doing your grocery shopping to cleaning your utensils, it can be too much for someone who is busy all day with work and with running all other errands. Compare this to just purchasing the carbonara dish from a restaurant. The latter takes you at most 20 minutes, from the purchase to the clean-up. There are no more dishes to clean, and no more ingredients to put away.
Comparing cooking at home with eating out, cooking trumps out eating out any day if you put health and finances into consideration. Cooking at home will always be cheaper compared to eating out, and it is healthier because you exactly know what you put into your body.
As you can see, cooking has a lot of advantages that will make you want to commit to it. Lots of new cooks make mistakes that are easily avoidable. Avoiding these mistakes will make you feel all the more motivated to continue to pursue cooking at home.
Here are the most common cooking mistakes that you must correct right now:
1. You don’t take measurements seriously
You may feel like measurements are nothing, and there is always room for error. However, if you want to get a good “feel” of cooking, and if you want to develop a taste for the dish you are preparing, take measurements seriously. You are not yet an expert to be able to have that freedom to shift away from the recipe. For now, as a beginner, follow instructions and make an effort to measure everything correctly.
2. You want to cook complicated dishes
There is nothing wrong with wanting to cook complicated dishes. However, if you are busy and you say you have no time to cook, it is best to go with recipes that are healthy, filling, yet do not have to take days for you to prepare. As a beginner, you want to stay motivated. So, keep yourself motivated by going with simple dishes for now.
These are the typical cooking mistakes you must correct right now if you want to improve your cooking skills. So you don’t get too overwhelmed in the beginning, go with meal kit deliveries (check out a Sun Basket review) that allow you to get prepped up ingredients delivered to your doorstep. With this service, you get to focus on the cooking aspect. It is a good primer if you want to get a “feel” of what cooking at home is like.
Surely, if there’s a well that has water that would make people look and stay young if they drink of it. A good number of people would frantically go and look for that well, and maybe, take as many waters they could. Indeed, there are many people who would do everything just to preserve their youthful beauty.
Unfortunately, that ‘forever young’ well never existed. And so, people are left to find real and existing ways to maintain their youthful glow. Enter the power of anti-aging creams.
Anti-aging creams are moisturizer-based skin care product which aims primarily to make its consumers look younger. By reducing apparent wrinkles, lines, freckles, pigmentation changes, and discolorations on the face. It further helps remove the dead outer layer of the skin and moisturize it. Its active ingredients mainly consist of retinol, epidermal growth factor (EGF), alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), peptides, Coenzyme Q10, anti-oxidants, and sunscreen. All of which act harmoniously with each other to help fight the signs of aging.
True, there are a lot of most effective and faster ways to look younger nowadays such as facelifts, chemical peeling, and botox. But you can always rely on the effectiveness and safety of anti-aging creams. The best Korean beauty products do not only have anti-aging effects, but they are all-natural and hypoallergenic.
Moreover, these creams are many times less expensive as opposed to those surgical procedures and you won’t have to worry about pain or other complications.
Check with your Dermatologist
Before you use an anti-aging cream, it is best to consult your skin doctor first. It is always better to be safe and sure. The effectiveness of anti-aging creams depends on each person’s skin type. You must remember that when you go buy an anti-aging cream, you have to select the product based on your skin type. When you use the wrong kind of anti-aging cream, it might harm your skin. You should also go for those products which have hyaluronic acid and Vitamin E since these two would leave a positive effect on your skin and will help lift it and smooth it out.
When using anti-aging creams, keep in mind that these products will only help you hide and reduce the signs of aging on your face. It will not save you from aging. Aging, along with its physical symptoms, is a part of every human’s life.
J.R.R. Tolkien is a master of words. His popular fantasy series The Lord of the Rings, which has been turned into a box office winning movie series, and its prequel The Hobbit features a motley cast of characters including humans, elves, hobbits, wizards, and ents. The books concerning these characters include: The Hobbit and the trilogy containing The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King.
Tolkien was able to use his knowledge of words to indicate fully create a scheme of creatures and well-known characters. Many of his usages have forever changed viewer’s thoughts on certain creatures.
Background to Tolkien’s Middle-Earth
Tolkien’s story takes place in the fictional world of Middle-Earth where a hobbit (a short fictional creature of Tolkien’s own invention) must make a journey to save himself and his people from the evil Sauron. At the beginning of the series he inherits what they call “The One Ring.” This ring must be destroyed because evil powers are conglomerating to steal it and use its powers to take over all of Middle-Earth.
Frodo makes the journey to destroy the ring, and he faces many new characters, creatures, and locations along the way. Most of the characters in the series speak with varying dialects and they sometimes even use languages invented by Tolkien himself. What many people may not know is Tolkien’s personal experiences as a word smith, a word lover, and a word studier.
J.R.R. Tolkien’s work with words was prolific. The Ring of Words tells that “…Tolkien’s first job, on returning home from war service in the trenches, was as an assistant on the original [Oxford English] Dictionary, then still incomplete” (Gilliver, Marshall, Weiner vii).
Tolkien also created his own fictional languages, based off of authentic ones he had studied, and he produced their writings and runes. He is also well-known for reviving Old English words and reinventing them to suit his own personal uses.
The Changing Definition of Elves
One of the other Old English words popularized by Tolkien is “elf.” The OED online defines as an elf as “mythol: The name of a class of supernatural beings in early Teutonic belief supposed to possess formidable magical powers, exercised variously for the benefit or injury of mankind.” The OED also explains that the creature called an elf, during the Old English period, was seen more often than not as a dark and threatening creature.
In The Lord of the Rings, the vast majority of the elves seen are helpful, long lived creatures, with the vast knowledge of healing. When Frodo receives a life threatening injury on his journey the elf Elrond, “…is a master of healing” (Fellowship 248) and he uses those very same healing powers to keep Frodo alive. The Ring of Words describes, as previously mentioned that in Old English writings elves were often seen as cruel and malignant creatures.
Later on, in the 16th century, an elf was seen as something more akin to a modern day fairy, a small and flighty creature. Thanks to the popularity of The Lord of the Rings books and movies, people are much more likely to associate the word “elf” with J.R.R. Tolkien’s mysterious, yet helpful, humanoid woodland creatures than with other derivations of the word.
Concerning the elves, Tolkien also uses the word “elven” in his works, as “an adjective meaning ‘of or relating to the elves” (Gilliver, Marshall, and Weiner 117). This shows an evolution of a word since “elven” in Old English was used as a noun which meant “originally, a female elf, but in later use applied to both sexes” (OED). Thus Tolkien reinvented the word by changing its part of speech and by using it to represent more than what it originally did.
Ents in the Lord of the Rings
Another fictional creature which Tolkien popularized was an “ent” which is a giant walking and talking tree. When the hobbits first meet the ent Treebeard in The Two Towers, they note that he was, “a large Man-like, almost Troll-like, figure, at first fourteen feet high, very sturdy, with a tall head and hardly any neck” (64). The Ring of Words notes that this word was derived from the Old English “eoten… [which] was a being hostile to humans” (Gilliver, Marshall, and Weiner 119).
Tolkien, therefore, fleshed out the Old English, and other derived, words to create a group of sentient beings who help make the hobbits mission successful.
Gilliver, Peter, Jeremy Marshall, and Edmund Weiner. The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary. New York: Oxford UP, 2006.
Tolkien, J.R.R. The Fellowship of the Ring. The Lord of the Rings series. New York: Ballantine Books, 1954.
… The Hobbit. New York: Ballantine Books, 1937.
…The Return of the King. The Lord of the Rings series. New York: Ballantine Books, 1955.
…The Two Towers. The Lord of the Rings series. New York: Ballantine Books, 1954.
Chronology of Rebecca Ore's Literature
|1971||Mouse Works [as Rebecca Brown]||
|1974||The Bicycle Trip & Poems [as Rebecca Brown]||
Poetry, Short Nonfiction
|1976||For the 82nd Airborne [as Rebecca Brown]||
|1978||3-Way Split [as Rebecca Brown]||
Poetry, A Play
|1986||Projectile Weapons and Wild Alien Water [as Rebecca Brown]||
|1986||September, The Tyrant That I Serve
[as Rebecca Brown Ore]
|1988||July, Ice-Gouged Lakes, Glacier-Bound Times||
|1989||The Lost Audience: 1,000 Readers Just Like Her||
|1989||April, Letter of Comment: Science Fiction Poetry||
|1989||July, Letter of Comment: Mike Resnik's "Kirinyaga"||
|1989||July, Read This||
|1989||August, Letter of Comment||
|1989||October, Response to "The New Generation Gap"||
|1990||Human to Human||
|1990||The Barbarian Queen [as Rebecca Brown Ore]||
|1991||The Illegal Rebirth of Billy the Kid||
|1993||January, Ocean Hammer||
|1993||April, Aliens and the Artificial Other||
|1993||August, Alien Bootlegger||
|1993||August, Farming in Virginia||
|1993||August, Giant Flesh Holograms Keep My Baby's Eyes Warm||
|1993||August, Projectile Weapons||
|1993||September, A Review of [Soetsu Yanagi's] The Unknown Craftsman for SF Writers||
|1995||Hypocaust & Bathysphere||
|1995||December The First Time||
|1996||Going Back To Colchis||
|1996||Stone Whorl, Flint Knife||
|1997||My Mother, the Alien, and Me||
|1997||Scarey Rose in Deep History||
|1997||April, Was 1950s Science Fiction Ever Escape?||
|1999||Half in Love With Easeful Rock and Rol||
|2007||Acid and Stoned Reindeer||
|2009||Centuries Ago and Very Fast||
Novel/Collection of Stories
|2012||Time and Robbery||
|Declaration Rules, Unpublished||